Frequent questions

Let us clarify some of the most common doubts of the European consumers.

The consumer should demand the same guarantees when shopping on Internet as when shopping in a traditional establishment. And although the majority of companies with online trading comply with the applicable legislation, there are some who do not, leading to a high level of mistrust towards this type of transaction.

Consequently, when you shop on Internet, we recommend that you always confirm the identity of the online shop. Remember that, before making your purchase, the company should provide a clear, free and comprehensible (among other clauses) description of the main characteristics of the goods and services, the identity and contact details of the company, the total price, the procedure for payment, the legal guarantee of conformity for the goods and where the right of withdrawal is applicable, they should indicate the corresponding conditions, procedure and form for doing so.

Basic rights when shopping online:

  • Confirmation of the purchase: The seller shall immediately send the customer proof of the contract made.
  • Delivery time: 30 calendar days from the signing of the contract.
  • Guarantee: The company must provide information about the existence of a guarantee and respond in the event of non-conformities which appear within 2 years of the delivery.
  • Right of withdrawal: As a general rule, the consumer has the right to revoke the contract without needing to justify their decision and without penalty of any class. The maximum time limit for exercising this rule is 14 calendar days from receipt of the product.

The following are excluded from this right:

  • Air and train tickets, concert tickets, hotel reservations, car rental reservations and services for the supply of food for specific dates.
  • Food and refreshments normally delivery home (supermarket delivery for example).
  • Tailor-made or personalised articles (for example a tailored suit, etc.).
  • Sealed audio, video or computer software data support (such as a DVD) which has been opened.
  • Online digital content, if the download or real-time emission has already started.
  • Products purchased from private individuals and not from businesses.
  • Contracts for repair and urgent maintenance (for example, if you call a plumber to repair a dripping tap, you cannot cancel the job once the price of the service has been agreed).

It should be noted that this list is not exhaustive.

This information is provided as a guideline only. For more detailed information about your rights, please see the Spanish Legislation and the directives of the European Legislation regulating e-commerce and the contracting of products and services on Internet.

Identifying a fraud is not always easy. However, in the majority of cases they follow the same pattern: the consumer is asked for a sum of money in advance in exchange for a large sum of money or products at highly advantageous or knock-down prices in the future.

To help you recognise a possible fraud, follow our tips:

- Identify the seller. Check out as much as possible the seller's identity and history. Consult forums and opinions. If you cannot find any contact details or they are dubious, thick twice before paying.

- Use secure methods of payment. Banks and intermediary payment entities on Internet offer tools to minimise the risk. Never pay through remittance companies. If possible, use a credit card as this will give you the possibility of recovering undue charges.

- Look for seals of approval and secure Internet connections. Only send information via Web pages with a secure connection. That is, those that start with https.

- Use your common sense. Be suspicious of offers which are too good to be true. Using your common sense can often help to prevent setbacks.

When making the reservation

Read the terms and conditions carefully and pay special attention to the following points:

- Does the final price include unlimited mileage?

- What are the terms of the basic insurance and of the extensions to the same? To what extent is my liability limited by the payment of an insurance with an excess?

- Is there a charge for collecting the vehicle at one office and dropping it off at another office? And for collecting it at a particular office, for example at an airport? Is it included in the precontract price or will it be included later in the final contract when I collect the vehicle?

Can I take the vehicle out of the country? Does this involve any extra costs?

Credit card or debit card? Although the reservation can often be made with a debit card, a credit card in the driver's name is normally required in order to collect the vehicle.

At the Car Rental Office

Arrive well in advance and make sure that you understand the terms of the contract perfectly before signing. 

The driver will be responsible for any damage to the vehicle from the moment of its collection until it has been inspected by the company at the time of drop-off.

When collecting the vehicle, the office staff will probably offer you the option of an additional insurance with excess to limit your liability. With this extra cover you undertake to pay all the damage repair costs up to the agreed amount, after which the company will be responsible for any costs.

Find out about any particular situations which are not covered by this type of insurance as, in many cases, damage to windows, wheels, windscreen wipers, etc. are not included.

Check what sort of fuel the vehicle uses as a mistake when filling the tank may cause severe damage to the engine, for which the driver will be responsible.

Several options are normally offered with regard to the filling of the tank. Find out which option you have contracted:      

  • Pay for a full tank and return the vehicle as empty as possible.
  • Pick up the vehicle with a full tank and return it full.
  • Pay the company for the fuel you have used.

Inspect the vehicle closely before signing the contract and notify the office staff of any minor damage you find. Make sure that this is recorded in writing in a report and that you are given a copy. Any damage that has not been reported at the time will be the driver's responsibility.

During the rental period

If you have an accident, you must immediately contact the company and fill in the accident report. If third parties are involved, you should ask them to complete the relevant sections.

If an offence is committed, it is the driver's responsibility. The company will normally charge you administrative fees for sending your details to the authority issuing the fine. Then, you will receive the fine at the address provided in the contract.

Returning the vehicle

Arrive at the rental office in good time and make sure that a company employee inspects the car.

Although many cars offer the option to return the car when the office is closed, we recommend you return the vehicle during office hours. Otherwise, you will be responsible for any damage to the vehicle until a member of staff inspects the car.

Take photos of the interior and exterior of the vehicle at the time of return.


If you are a resident in Spain and you experience an incident related to delays, cancellations or denied boarding in air transport, you should submit a claim to the airline at the earliest opportunity. For this, you may use the complaint forms provided by the airlines at the information desks or points of sale in the airports. 

Provide all the substantiating documents in your possession and do not forget to keep your ticket and any other documents used. Next, contact a public body which will help you with your claim:

- If you are flying with an airline from the EU, Norway or Iceland: Contact us (Incluir aquí el link de How to submit a claim).

- In any case (incidents of passengers resident in Spain relating to delays, cancellations or denied boarding occurring in national or international territory), your claim can be sent through the AESA.


In the case of denied boarding, the company shall ask for volunteers and agree the compensation with them. If there are not enough volunteers and passengers are denied boarding against their will, the rights of the passenger include:

  • Right to Information The airline must give you a leaflet containing the conditions of assistance and compensation.
  • Right to assistance. The air company must provide the necessary assistance: adequate meals and refreshments, two free-of-charge telephone calls or access to e-mail and, if necessary, one or more nights of hotel accommodation and transport between the airport and the place of accommodation.
  • Right to reimbursement or alternative transport. The passenger may select one of the following three options which must be offered by the air carrier:
    • Reimbursement of the ticket within seven days.
    • Re-routing, under comparable conditions, to their final destination at the earliest opportunity.
    • Re-routing, under comparable conditions, to their final destination at a later date at the passenger's convenience, subject to availability of seats.
  • Right to compensation, between 250 € and 600 €, depending on the distance of the flight, although this amount may be reduced by 50% when the air carrier offers re-routing and the delay on arrival at the destination is acceptable.
Distance Compensation 50% reduction if the delay on arrival is less than
Up to 1.500 km. 250 € 2 hours
Flights between 1.500 km and 3.500 km as well as intra-Community flights of 1.500 km. 400 € 3 hours
More than 3.500 km. 600 € 4 hours


In the event of cancellation, the consumer is entitled to:

  • Information, assistance and reimbursement or re-routing under the same conditions as for the case of denied boarding.
  • Right to compensation under the same conditions as for denied boarding unless they were informed of the cancellation at least 14 days before the scheduled departure or if the air carrier can prove that the cancellation was caused by extraordinary circumstances.


Passenger rights in the case of a delayed departure include:

  • Right to Information. The airline must give you a leaflet containing the conditions of assistance and compensation.
  • Right to assistance. According to the following limits:
Distance Right to assistance if the departure delay is more than
Up to 1.500 km. 2 hours
Flights between 1.500 km and 3.500 km as well as intra-Community flights of more than       1.500 km. 3 hours
More than 3.500 km. 4 hours
  • Right to reimbursement. When the delay is at least five hours, and the passenger chooses not to travel, where applicable, a return flight to the first point of departure, at the earliest opportunity.


When the final destination is reached three or more hours after the scheduled arrival time, the passenger may be entitled to compensation identical to that to which they would be entitled in the event of cancellation of a flight, unless the air carrier is able to prove that the delay was caused by extraordinary circumstances.

These rights are for guidance only. Consult Regulation 261/2004 regulating the rights of passengers in the event of denied boarding, cancellation and major delay.

If your suitcase has suffered damage or your luggage has been lost, you must claim to the company. The company is responsible for repairing or restoring the damage caused. On the other hand, the airline is responsible for the checked baggage.

When you notice any irregularity with your luggage (loss, damage or delay), communicate it immediately, before leaving the airport, at the counters of the airline, or if it does not have a presence at the airport to your agent or representative at the airport in the authorized counter.

When you report an incident on your baggage at the airport, the airline or its handling agent will issue a baggage irregularity report (PIR) and will give you a copy. Save this document, as it is the one requested by the airline when you claim.

For many companies it is essential to present the PIR form to accept a claim related to luggage, so we recommend that you fill it out before leaving the airport.

In addition, you must submit a formal written complaint to which you must attach a copy of the PIR in accordance with the terms established in the Montreal Convention:

Damage to luggage: 7 days from receipt of luggage.

Baggage delay: 21 days from receipt of luggage.

Loss of baggage: There is no limit established in the Agreement, but it is recommended to make the claim as soon as possible, after the 21 days during which the suitcase has been "delayed", or after the airline has confirmed that your baggage is lost.

Please note that without protest on your part, it will be considered, unless proven otherwise, that it has been delivered in good condition and in accordance with the transport document.

If your flight entails making a connection with more than one company, you may be able to check in your luggage from the departure to the final destination. If you do this and something happens with your luggage, you can claim against any of the companies that have transported the luggage.

If the divergences with the company cannot be resolved, the passenger can claim through the courts. It has a term of two years, from the date of arrival at the destination or the day the aircraft should have arrived. The rules of application in these cases is the Montreal Convention, ratified by Spain in 2004.

Are you entitled to any compensation?

The liability of the carrier in case of destruction, loss, damage or delay in the transport of luggage is limited to 1,131 special drawing rights* per passenger, unless the passenger has made the carrier a special declaration of the value of the delivery of checked baggage when receiving the baggage at the place of destination and, where appropriate, paid an additional amount. However, and to ensure sufficient coverage, it is advisable to take out private insurance when traveling with valuables.

* Special drawing rights shall be converted into the national currency of a State according to the value of that currency on the date of the judgment or on the date agreed upon by the parties. The value, in terms of special drawing rights, of a national currency of a Contracting State shall be calculated in accordance with the valuation method applied by the International Monetary Fund in effect on the date in question for its operations and transactions.

For further information, please see the Montreal Convention

Review of the limits of responsibility. Montreal Convention

The European Union legislation establishes a minimum legal guarantee of two years for all products, whether the purchase has been made by Internet, at a traditional establishment or by mail order.

It is possible that the legislation in each country offers further protection. Nevertheless, any difference with respect to the EU legislation must always favour the consumer.

In addition, in those cases in which the product received does not correspond to the product contracted, consumers are entitled to receive the product at no additional cost and may select between repair, replacement or a reduction in price or refund of the amount paid.

As a general rule, a full or partial refund can only be requested if it is not possible to repair or replace the product.

If the products are second-hand, given their nature, the guarantee period may be less than two years and the general rule of replacement will not apply.

For further information, please see the European legislation:

Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 May 1999 on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees.

Directive 2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on consumer rights, amending Council Directive 93/13/EEC and Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Council Directive 85/577/EEC and Directive 97/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council Text with EEA relevance.

La reventa de entradas online es una práctica en la que los consumidores pueden encontrarse desprotegidos. Por eso, el Gobierno de España está trabajando en la elaboración de un proyecto de Disposición de carácter general sobre las actividades de venta y reventa telemática de entradas para espectáculos culturales con el fin de garantizar la defensa de los derechos de los consumidores y usuarios, el acceso a la cultura, así como otros aspectos como la seguridad pública. En esta misma línea, la autoridad que vigila la competencia y los mercados en Reino Unido -la CMA (Competition and Markets Authority)- ha adoptado medidas legales contra la plataforma de reventa de entradas Viagogo al no cumplir con la normativa que protege a los consumidores.

Principales problemas de la reventa:

  • Información insuficiente.

Dificultad para saber si la web es de venta o de reventa.

Dificultad para conocer cuál es el precio nominal de la entrada (precio original fijado por el organizador), las comisiones y recargos aplicables de la reventa (esta información solo suele ofrecerse al finalizar la compra) o el porcentaje de las entradas vendidas directamente por el promotor.

Además, en las plataformas online de reventa, la información sobre la localización de la butaca (sección, asiento, fila, etc.) tiene carácter opcional y, si existe, se indica de forma aproximada.

Hay que tener en cuenta también que las prácticas comerciales con información falsa o que induzcan a error al consumidor -incluso cuando la información sea correcta- así como omitir información sustancial podrían ser consideradas prácticas engañosas.

  • Fraudes.

Principales fraudes detectados en las plataformas de reventa online:

     - Reventa de entradas que no existen o que las plataformas no poseen.

     - Reventa de una misma entrada varias veces.

     - Simulación derechos de acceso que realmente no se tienen.

     - Reventa de entradas falsificadas.

     - Reventa anunciada como una transacción entre particulares cuando en realidad la oferta la realizad una empresa.

  • Número reducido de entradas en el canal oficial y precios elevados en las plataformas de reventa.

Debido al desvío producido desde los canales de venta telemática oficiales a las plataformas online de reventa. Para ello, los brokers o proseller (profesionales de la reventa) utilizan técnicas para disponer de la práctica totalidad de las entradas lo que deja al consumidor en una situación de desventaja.

  • Dificultad para garantizar la seguridad.

Debido a la falta de trazabilidad en la reventa.

Antes de comprar, compruebe que la plataforma sea fiable.

Debe facilitar información clara, legible, veraz y comprensible. Debe informar si aplica alguna restricción de entrega y las modalidades de pago aceptadas. Cualquier ambigüedad se interpretará a favor del consumidor y las condiciones injustas no serán vinculantes.

Todas las tasas, impuestos y gastos deben estar incluidos en el precio inicial ofertado incluidos los gastos adiciones de entrega, transporte o cualquier otro gasto adicional.

Deberá informarse de las vías para reclamar.

Aparecer en las primeras posiciones en los rankings de los buscadores de Internet no significa que la web sea un canal oficial o fiable. Puede que sean anunciantes que pagan por sus contenidos.

¿Cómo diferenciar una página de venta oficial de una plataforma de reventa?

Normalmente las plataformas de reventa de entradas se anuncian como mercado secundario, sitio de compra-venta, mercado de reventa o plataforma colaborativa. Además, suelen ocultar la ubicación exacta de las entradas.

Sin embargo, en ocasiones, determinados organizadores de espectáculos encargan la distribución de las entradas directamente a las empresas de reventa. En esos casos, la plataforma no opera como una plataforma de reventa entre particulares, sino como una empresa de “venta telemática de entradas”. Compruebe siempre cuáles son los colaboradores de venta oficial (oficial ticketing partners) en la web oficial del organizador. 

¿Sabías que algunas plataformas se anuncian como un modelo colaborativo entre particulares y realmente no los son?

Estas plataformas reciben habitualmente comisiones, son destinatarias de los pagos e incluso prestan servicios accesorios por lo que deben considerarse como empresas que prestan servicios o bienes a los consumidores. Por eso, deberían ofrecerles las mismas garantías y derechos legales que cualquier otra empresa ya que no se trata realmente de un modelo de “economía colaborativa” sino de una “economía de plataforma” entre empresas y consumidores.

Recomendaciones antes de la compra.

Compre en páginas web con protocolo seguros (https).

Desconfíe de aquellas que tienen fallos de diseño o faltas de ortografía. Busque referencias y opiniones y, en caso de duda, desconfíe.

No envíe dinero en efectivo y dude de las páginas que solicitan transferencias o giros bancarios.

Pague con tarjeta a ser posible de recarga, autónoma a la cuenta bancaria y exclusiva para pagos online.

Guarde todos los documentos relacionados con la compra.

Cuidado con las tácticas comerciales agresivas.

Es frecuente encontrar plataformas online que utilizan tácticas comerciales agresivas para presionar al consumidor a realizar una compra impulsiva. Expresiones como “últimos días”, “última oportunidad” o “las estradas se están agotando” son solo técnicas de marketing cuyo objetivo es conseguir el mayor número de ventas posible.

¿Ha comprado las entradas a un particular?

¡Cuidado! En este caso no se aplicarán los derechos que tiene como consumidor. La plataforma online deberá informar de forma clara quién vende las entradas.

¿Cuál es el plazo para recibir las entradas?

Salvo acuerdo contrario, se entregarán las entradas al consumidor en un plazo máximo de 30 días. Si no se reciben en este plazo, el consumidor podrá acordar un plazo adicional adecuado a las circunstancias y, si no se cumpliera, el consumidor tendrá derecho a resolver el contrato.

Además, si el consumidor informa al comerciante, antes de la celebración del contrato, de que es esencial la entrega en una fecha determinada y el comerciante no cumple con el plazo acordado, el consumidor tendrá derecho a resolver el contrato de inmediato y a la devolución de los importes pagados.

¿Tengo derecho al reembolso si se cancela el evento?

La práctica totalidad de la legislación autonómica española en materia de espectáculos públicos reconoce el derecho de los consumidores a la devolución total o parcial del importe abonado por las localidades cuando el espectáculo actividad recreativa se suspenda o sea modificado sustancialmente, salvo que sea por fuerza mayor.

¿Tengo derecho de desistimiento?

No. Como norma general en las compras a distancia o fuera del establecimiento, el consumidor tiene derecho a rescindir el contrato sin necesidad de justificar su decisión (derecho de desistimiento). Para ello, tiene un plazo de 14 días naturales (periodo de reflexión) para devolver la compra y recuperar el dinero sin penalización.

Sin embargo, existen algunas excepciones. Así, el derecho de desistimiento no se aplica en la compra de entradas para espectáculos o en los contratos de servicios relacionados con actividades de esparcimiento si éstos prevén una fecha o un periodo de ejecución específicos.  

¿Sabías que las entradas nominativas no se pueden ceder a terceros?

Por lo general, las entradas permiten al portador acceder al recinto. Sin embargo, puede haber entradas nominativas. Aquí, el comprador debe identificar al “asistente titular” con nombre y apellido. Todos los acompañantes tendrán que entrar al recinto junto con el “asistente titular” y si este no puede acudir, no podrá cedérselas a nadie y los acompañantes perderán también el derecho de entrada. Para evitar estas situaciones, el consumidor podrá adquirir un seguro.

¿Sabías que algunas agencias de viaje compran entradas en plataformas de reventa para ofrecerlas en una combinación de servicios?

En caso de problemas con las entradas compradas como parte de un viaje combinado, reclame al organizador o minorista del viaje. Ellos son los responsables de los servicios incluidos en el viaje.

Derecho a no ser discriminado.

Salvo excepciones, los consumidores europeos tienen derecho a realizar compras transfronterizas en línea dentro del espacio económico europeo sin ser discriminados injustificadamente por motivos de nacionalidad, lugar de residencia o por el lugar de establecimiento. De esta forma, deberá garantizarse también la igualdad en el acceso a la compra online de billetes –por ejemplo- para acontecimientos deportivos, los billetes de entrada a festivales o parque de atracciones. Pero cuidado, algunos países europeos como Francia y Bélgica contemplan distintos niveles de prohibición de reventa habitual en su ordenamiento jurídico e Irlanda está tramitando una nueva normativa para prohibir la reventa de entradas por encima del valor nominal para eventos deportivos y de entretenimiento. En España, distintas comunidades autónomas contemplan en su legislación prohibiciones expresas a la reventa. Galicia, por ejemplo, ha prohibido de forma expresa la reventa telemática.

Derecho a la protección de los datos personales.

Antes de facilitar datos personales, debe comprobarse la finalidad para la que se recaban y que el procedimiento de acceso, rectificación, supresión, portabilidad, limitación del tratamiento y oposición sea sencillo.

Las casillas para dar el consentimiento no pueden estar pre-marcadas.

No deben facilitarse más datos personales de los necesarios para la compra y/o entrega a domicilio.

Los datos de menores de 14 años no se pueden tratar sin el consentimiento de los padres o tutores.

Mejor comprar a empresas europeas.

Los derechos de los consumidores recogidos en la legislación europea, en principio, se aplican cuando la empresa tiene su sede en la Unión Europea o cuando las compras se realizan a vendedores establecidos fuera de la UE que centren sus actividades comerciales en los consumidores europeos si bien, en estos últimos casos, pueden surgir dificultades a la hora de hacer valer los derechos de los consumidores.

“Liberar” los teléfonos móviles o tabletas –acción conocida técnicamente como “jailbreaking” en los dispositivos iOS o “rooting” en los terminales Android- supone la pérdida automática de la garantía del fabricante del dispositivo.

Según el Instituto Nacional de Ciberseguridad, dependiente del Ministerio de Economía y Empresa, en estos casos, Apple se está negando incluso a reparar sus dispositivos con “jailbreaking” al igual que podrían hacerlo los fabricantes de terminales Android con “rooting”.

Asimismo, la práctica de “jailbreaking” o “rooting” puede provocar que los dispositivos sean más vulnerables y sufran, más fácilmente, ataques maliciosos de aplicaciones. De esta forma, los datos que contenga el móvil o tableta podrían quedar desprotegidos y el correcto funcionamiento del terminal podría verse limitado. Además, en muchas ocasiones provoca que el consumidor no vuelva a recibir actualizaciones automáticas.

Actualmente, la normativa europea ofrece una serie de garantías a los consumidores. Cabe destacar la garantía legal mínima de dos años mediante la cual si un producto está defectuoso o no coincide con lo anunciado, el vendedor está obligado a la reparación, sustitución gratuita o a ofrecer un descuento o la devolución del importe íntegro abonado cuando no se pueda reparar o sustituir el producto. Adicionalmente, los fabricantes también pueden ofrecer sus propias garantías comerciales para ofrecer una mayor protección al consumidor.

Diferencias entre “jailbreaking” y “rooting”

  • “Jailbreaking” es el proceso que consigue eliminar las limitaciones impuestas por Apple en un dispositivo con iOS. Una vez “liberado”, podrá por ejemplo instalarse aplicaciones de terceros que no estén en la AppStore.
  • “Rooting” es el proceso que consigue obtener permisos de “superusuario” o administrador. De esta forma, se tendrá acceso al sistema sin ningún tipo de restricción permitiendo, por ejemplo, desinstalar apps preinstaladas por el fabricante o eliminar permisos.

Hacer “jailbreaking” o “rooting” es legal en España

Tanto el “jailbreaking” como el “rooting” son legales en Estados Unidos desde el año 2010. En España también están permitidas estas prácticas salvo que se lleven a cabo con ánimo de lucro o se utilicen para ejecutar aplicaciones de pago de forma gratuita.